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广州新型产业用地管理措施出炉 按办公用途地价20%计收

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 一系列减税降费政策出台 劳动者得到实惠 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

天津首判“炒房合同”无效!怎么判定是炒房?

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

而关于小牛这支球队,问题并不全是司机该怎么让位。在老司机的整个职业生涯中,这一直是一直有实力的球队。德克今年这样支离破碎的赛季实在令人痛苦。或许下个夏天他就会加入科比、KG和大基本功先生的队伍中去。
许多人对此不屑一顾,《纽约每日新闻》采访到的一位营养师声称,黄金披萨中最昂贵的成分:厄瓜多尔进口黄金薄片缺乏营养价值。
Millward Brown的BrandZ估值主管Elspeth Cheung表示:“排行榜10强过去由消费品主宰。今年是科技。”
科学家们让夫妻进入实验室,在他们开始“别扭”对话时观察他们的压力水平。研究发现,面对压力时,用大笑等积极情绪缓解压力的夫妻在一起的时间往往更久。
喜剧类最佳女配角:凯特?麦金侬(Kate McKinnon),《周六夜现场》(Saturday Night Live)
乔纳森·格雷泽导演的《皮囊之下》讲述的是一位美丽又可怕的外星人的故事,她本身美丽,恐怖而且是个外星人:这是一部完全与众不同的,残暴的色情电影。乔纳森·格雷泽以前导演的优秀作品仅仅只是为这部电影做的局部模糊的铺垫。他的《性感野兽》(2000)是一部令人视觉上满足的,兴奋的,充满智慧的犯罪惊悚片,它超越了那个年代操着方言的悲剧老头的模式。《重生》(2004)有着库布里克式的精致与阴冷,电影中的一些画面,十分出色;它是一部值得奉为经典的电影,但尚未实现。接着十年过去了,对那些电影事业一直无法实现的人,格雷泽似乎成为他们的设计师。(天知道,这种事情总发生在那些有天赋的人身上)。
考虑到猛龙现有的轮转人员,伊巴卡和塔克的到来使猛龙的防守大幅度提升了。鉴于洛瑞和德马尔-德罗赞一到季后赛得分效率就下降的黑历史,这两笔交易也给了主教练德韦恩-凯西足够的武器用来拿下那些季后赛胜利。

达奇斯说:2011年达美乐的品牌热情大幅度增长,但是2012年无法与之相提并论。他们不能每年都重新设计食谱,真是太可惜了。
201001/93691.shtml重点单词
2. Organize
Vegetable price growth more than doubled to 13 per cent year on year, helping push food inflation to 3 per cent, up from 2.7 per cent in September.
The Meyerowitz Stories

Footnotes

  • 地产业“过剩产能”待消化 三年库存增长104%
  • 8. The 2012 Ig Nobel Fluid Dynamics Prize

Paul George, Chris Paul, Carmelo Anthony, Gordon Hayward Jimmy Butler, Derrick Rose, Paul Millsap, J.J. Redick, Eric Bledsoe, Dwight Howard ... the list goes on and on of players who switched uniforms since last year.
远离熙熙攘攘的繁华都市,密歇根上半岛主打自然风景与美景,种种景观令人叹为观止。
瑞典就人道主义援助贡献基金而言,属于最慷慨的国家之一,整体排名第六。“公民权益”排名第二,“最佳绿色生活国家”排名第一。
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The Veterans Day holiday, which pays tribute to all men and women who have served in the U.S. military, dates back to 1919, when President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed November 11 as Armistice Day to celebrate the end of fighting exactly one year earlier in World War One - "the war to end all wars" - between Germany and the allied nations of Britain, France and the United States. The armistice famously went into effect at "the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month."
Detroit Three: The other two Michigan-based manufacturers still face bumps. General Motors copes with continued fallout from its ignition switch recall while Ford fights through the most aggressive launch period in the company’s history.

家居电商模式路漫漫 “网购家具”消费体验参差不齐

References

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